the asthma attack

does asthma kill? the thought running through my head one night. dua teman sejawat serta seorang pasien di rumah sakit yang diduga meninggal akibat serangan asma berat membuat saya bertanya2. sementara yang selama ini ditanamkan di kepala saya adalah bahwa asma tidak mematikan tapi akan dibawa penderitanya sampai mati.

what had happened, happened. what i'm trying to find out here is how it happened, how to avoid and how to treat this kind of thing.

i can't actually find any explanations about this. no known patophysiology that can explain why asthma attack causes someone to die. what i found from an abstract of a research about the analysis of the cause of death in asthma patients is that the majority of cases there took place death with asthma rather than from asthma.

so what happened then?
did the bronchi and bronchioli constrict completely making zero air into and out of the lung. i'm sure the patient did not forget to breathe or stop out of tired. because breathing is one of man's basic instinct. that's why if one holds his breath on purpose, he will breathe in a reflex when "the body says so".

menurut webMD Asma berhubungan dengan sel mast, eosinofil dan limfosit T. ketiganya berperan dalam reaksi alergi dan inflamasi. sel-sel ini bersama sel-sel inflamasi lain terlibat dalam kejadian inflamasi jalan napas pada asma yang menyumbang pada hipreresponsif jalan napas, terbatasnya aliran napas, gejala pernapasan dan penyakit kronik. pada beberapa orang, peradangan mengakibatkan perasaan dada sesak dan kehabisan napas yang kadang terasa pada malam hari atau pagi hari. yang lain hanya merapakan gejala ketika melakukan aktivitas fisik. karena peradangan, hiperresponsif jalan napas terjadi sebagai akibat pemicu spesifik.

but let's not get too serious about this. i mean it's a serious matter of course, but i'm not gonna bored you with all the cells, inflammations and medical stuffs.

jadi secara teoritis, saya kira memang mungkin bronki mengalami konstriksi maksimal sehingga hampir tidak memungkinkan terjadinya pertukaran udara akibat dari banyaknya sel-sel inflamasi yang dikeluarkan tubuh. the more inflammation cells involved the greater the symptoms. nah, menurut literatur yang pernah saya baca henti napas selama 2 menit akan mengakibatkan kerusakan sel otak (yang memang rentan terhadap perubahan kadar oksigen dalam darah) yang selanjutnya mengakibatkan kematian.

but, in order to produce such effect the bronchi and its branches must constrict almost 100%. it means that the allergic reaction must be severe. and for almost 3 years of my professional carreers, i've never seen such reaction, and i must say that it is rarely happens. so, when and why such inflammation happens?

i don't really know.

how to avoid?

of course, one must avoid all the allergens that can induce airway inflammation. this can range from food, cosmetics, fur, dust, to stress. someone who suffers from asthma since very little usually familiar with substances that can cause asthma attack. so, it's not very difficult to avoid. but to people who start to get asthma when they are older might not know this. so, it's better to avoid protein, dairy product, dust and chemical substances whether it is in food product or
cosmetics.

when someone in an asthma attack the treatment is of course medical. the first therapy is oxygen, followed by inhalation of beta-2 agonist drugs and sometimes steroid. if this doesn't work another type of bronchodilator medicine needs to be infused to the blood system.

okay. kayaknya sudah terlalu jauh ceritanya. padahal awalnya cuma mau cerita tentang beberapa orang yang meninggal 'karena' asma aja.

btw, i suffer from asthma since i was a child. almost every month, for almost one week, i must skip school and stay at home when the asthma attacks. so yeah, i definitely know (and can relate to) how difficult it is to breathe when the attack comes.

Comments

  1. wah, kalau dokter saja bingung, apalagi saya. hehe

    tapi mungkin begini, asthma secara umum memang tidak menyebabkan kematian. Tapi seperti yang kamu tulis, ada satu situasi dimana gelembung paru2 abnormally sedemikian ketat kontraksinya sehingga gak tersisa ruang untuk udara.

    Aku penderita aritmia cardis. Dokter bilang ini tidak bersifat lethal. Padahal kalau sedang kumat, rasanya setengah mati juga. kayak ada yang nabuh bedug di dada, nafas jadi pendek, mata berkunang2, bibir rasanya mati rasa...
    (*loh kok malah curhat)...

    hehe...
    tapi mungkin memang demikian, ada situasi2 tertentu di luar kenormalan.

    gitu gak sih?

    ReplyDelete

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